Chapter 1 creation (pages 1–5):
Chapter 2 Defining rigidity in Aquatic Animals (pages 7–21):
Chapter three soreness in Aquatic Animals (pages 23–39): leave out Bryony L. Ross
Chapter four the character of Anaesthesia, Sedation and Analgesia (pages 41–51):
Chapter five The good points of Anaesthetic brokers (pages 53–56):
Chapter 6 Anaesthesia and laws (pages 57–63):
Chapter 7 components Affecting the reaction of Aquatic Ectotherms to Anaesthesia (pages 65–68):
Chapter eight Anaesthesia of Fish: I. Inhalation Anaesthesia (pages 69–126):
Chapter nine Anaesthesia of Fish: II. Inhalation Anaesthesia utilizing Gases (pages 127–135):
Chapter 10 Anaesthesia of Fish: III. Parenteral and Oral Anaesthesia (pages 137–149):
Chapter eleven Anaesthesia of Fish: IV. Non?Chemical equipment (pages 151–166):
Chapter 12 Anaesthesia of Aquatic Invertebrates (pages 167–178):
Chapter thirteen Anaesthesia of Amphibians and Reptiles (pages 179–190):
Chapter 14 Transportation and Anaesthesia (pages 191–208):
Chapter 15 Concluding comments (pages 209–210):
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Extra info for Anaesthetic and Sedative Techniques for Aquatic Animals, Third Edition
They proposed that the noxious stimulus caused pain which overrode other behaviours, and emphasised that this was similar to the observed responses of humans who also performed poorly when in pain. Summary Aquatic animals, specifically the lower vertebrates and the higher invertebrates, are clearly capable of nociception with a range of resulting behaviours ranging from simple to complex. They may not perceive or experience pain in precisely the same way as mammals and higher vertebrates do, or by using the same neural structures.
Schwab, A. and Cowx, I. , 8 (2007) 57–71. I. , Schwartz, J H. and Jessell, T M. ), Principles of Neural Science, 4th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, 2000, pp. 472–491. W. , Blackwell Science, Oxford, 2001, 497 p. , 42 (1992) 827– 839. , Yue, S. , 5 (2004) 281–295. , Pain sensitivity and behaviour of fish, Vosprosy Ikthiologii, 37 (1) (1997) 106–111. Cousins, M. , Acute and postoperative pain, in: Handbook of Pain Management: A clinical companion to textbook of Pain, Elsevier, Churchill Livingstone, 2003.
It thus seems likely that the nociceptor pathways to the brain in lower vertebrates are very similar to those in higher vertebrates. Opioids Most vertebrates have been shown to produce the morphine-like endorphins and encephalins and, as already mentioned, the presence of specific receptors for them is considered to be good evidence for ch03 February 5, 2008 16:46 Char Count= Pain in Aquatic Animals 35 nociception and possibly pain perception. Receptors for these molecules have been demonstrated in fish (Buatti and Pasternak, 1981) and encephalins have been found in areas of the brain of goldfish, catfish, rainbow trout and the African lungfish, with a similar distribution to that of higher vertebrates.