By Cem Eroğul
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Additional resources for An Essay on the Nature of the State
Witness this statement by DA. H. O. VVright, in "Recetıt Developments in Marxist Theories of the Capitalist State - Part 2", Monthly Review, V. 27, n. 6 (November 1975), p. 48: "The analysis of an interest of the state is undeveloped within the Marxist perspective. " 6 Kari Marx, Capital, V. 3, London, Lawrence and Wishart, 1977, p. 791. 1 Louis Althusser, "Ideologie et Appareils Ideologiques d'Etat", La Pensee, n. 151 (June 1970), passim. s It must be noted that 'psychology' should not be included in this list.
The first field encompasses ali productive activity as it is shaped by the mode of produetion, ineluding therefore the forces of produetion as well as the relations of produetion. This field constitutes the sphere of the infrastructure. The ideological field comprises ali aesthetic, cultural, philosophical, juridical, ete. 8 The political field stands 'in between'. Like the ideological, it is a part of the superstrueture, but it constitutes that part of the superstrueture which is eloser to the infrastructure.
These relations are shaped by the property rights of the members of society. Without drawing at this stage distinetions between real appropriation and legal proprietorship, the basic issue in this context is the ownership of the means of produetion. The invariant elements of any produetion are the labour-power of the producers and the means of produetion. However, the connection between these elements is most variable, and it is these variations which, according to Marx, account for the fundamental difference between forms of society throughout human history.