By Roger Price
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Extra info for An Economic History of Modern France, 1730–1914
The Industrial Revolution in France, 1970. , The Nobility of Toulouse in the Eighteenth Century, Baltimore, 1960. , La transformation des moyens de transport et ses consequences economiques et sociales, 1880. , 1971. , Paris, la ville, 1852-70, 1977. d. , Chemins et vehicules de nos campagnes, St Brieuc, 1971. d. , La politique des travaux publics du second Empire, 1952. ,L'ancien regime, II, 1973. , Structures economiques et problemes sociaux du monde rural dans Ia France du sud-est, 1966. , 'Le cas d'un grand port de Commerce, Marseille' in Labrousse, E.
They permitted administrative control of the various branches by the centre, and the rapid movement of cash from areas of surplus to those where it was in demand. Credit resources were increased, the raising of capital facilitated and the means of payment simplified notably by the use of bank cheques following the law of 1865. The increased amount of money, both bullion and paper, in•circulation, and its growing mobility provided unparalleled means for the mobilisation of trade. 5 At a time when the volume of trade was expanding, when the elasticity of demand for transport was high, a pronounced reduction in transport costs led to an enormous increase in traffic.
In the provinces 1839 saw the opening of lines between Mulhouse and Thann, Montpellier and Cette, and Nimes and Beaucaire; in 1841 the Strasbourg to Basle. Progress was slowed by economic depression from 1837 to 1841, but willingness to invest in railways subsequently increased, encouraged above all by the opening of the first major lines the Paris to Rouen and Paris to Orleans in 1843. The utility of the short, coal carrying lines had soon been proved their construction effectively reduced the cost of coal at Marseille, for example, from 45 to 25 francs per ton in the 1830s.