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Extra info for Air-sea interaction: laws and mechanisms
One concludes that the constants are only known within ±5, so that β = 5, for either momentum or scalar, α = 20 for momentum, and α = 10 for scalars, are in the middle of the ranges recommended. 59. 64) = 2κ −1 ln[(1 + x 2 )/2] L with again x = (1 − αh/L)1/4 . 59, leaves the right-hand sides as they were, describing the neutral temperature of humidity distributions. Subtracting the same from an observed temperature or humidity distribution therefore recovers what the distribution would be without buoyancy effects, in the neutral case.
A calculation of entropy production attendant on eddy vapor flux, following the same recipe as for heat flux, shows that a similar fate befalls the buoyancy flux because of vapor flux. The physical explanation is that the heating of air parcels, or adding lighter water vapor to them, increases their potential energy and reduces the strength of the entropy source associated with heat flux. The gain is short lived, however. The potential energy is converted to kinetic energy of convective turbulence (as the TKE equation shows) and dissipated via ε in the end anyway.
7 Air-Sea Gas Transfer Atmospheric gases, such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, radon, and a number of others, are also present in the ocean in dilute solution. , of CO2 to the carbon cycle or of O2 to marine photosynthesis). Diffusing gas molecules make slow progress among the tightly packed molecules of liquid water, so that their diffusivity in water, Dw , is much less than in air, Da , typically by some four orders of magnitude. In consequence, the Resistance to the transfer of these and similar gases across the air-sea interface resides primarily on the water side, in contrast to the other scalar property transfers we discussed earlier.