By Miles McPhee
At a time while the polar areas are present process swift and remarkable swap, realizing exchanges of momentum, warmth and salt on the ice-ocean interface is important for realistically predicting the longer term country of sea ice. through supplying a dimension platform principally unaffected by way of floor waves, drifting sea ice presents a special laboratory for learning facets of geophysical boundary layer flows which are super tricky to degree somewhere else. This publication attracts on either wide observations and theoretical ideas to advance a concise description of the impression of pressure, rotation, and buoyancy at the turbulence scales that keep an eye on exchanges among the ambience and underlying ocean while sea ice is current. a number of fascinating and exact observational info units are used to demonstrate diversified facets of ice-ocean interplay starting from the impression of salt on melting within the Greenland Sea marginal ice quarter, to how nonlinearities within the equation of nation for seawater have an effect on blending within the Weddell Sea.
The book’s content material, constructed from a chain of lectures, can be applicable extra fabric for upper-level undergraduates and first-year graduate scholars learning the geophysics of sea ice and planetary boundary layers.
Miles McPhee plays geophysical examine, eager about polar areas, either from McPhee learn corporation and as associate imperative scientist on the collage of Washington utilized Physics Laboratory. He has participated in additional that twenty box courses within the polar oceans of either hemispheres. Dr. McPhee additionally lectures on air-ice-sea interplay on the collage middle on Svalbard.
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Extra resources for Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction: Turbulent Ocean Boundary Layer Exchange Processes
Accurate measurement of vertical velocity is critical for covariance estimates of turbulent ﬂuxes. Smith addressed the problem of resolving small vertical velocities with a mechanical current meter (sensitive to the angle of attack with respect to mean ﬂow) by canting the “z-axis” of the current meter triad away from the vertical by 30◦ , so that all three meters sensed a sizable fraction of the mean ﬂow. Turbulence measurements from the suspended masts, along with results from a modern Guildline CTD proﬁler, resulted in a fairly comprehensive view of the turbulence structure in a nearly neutrally stratiﬁed IOBL (McPhee and Smith 1976).
2 provide the primary rationale for estimating vertical ﬂuxes from the covariance statistics. To illustrate this, we start with a 1-h time series of data, adapted from McPhee and Stanton (1996), taken during the 1992 LeadEX project in the Canadian Basin. Although this example is not typical of what we usually observe in the IOBL (others are presented below), it was chosen because it accentuates important aspects of the turbulent exchange process. At about the time of solar zenith on 7 April (year day 98), our TIC mast was positioned near the middle of the well mixed layer at the north edge of a kilometer-wide lead, which had opened the previous day and was freezing fairly rapidly with air temperatures in the −20 to −28 ◦ C range.
975, respectively. 5 illustrates the procedure for the four 15-min turbulence realizations. In each case, 200 artiﬁcial time series of length 7,200 were synthesized by using a random number generator to assign indices from the original w × Tdata time series (the upper right panel corresponds to the series shown in Fig. 4). Means of each artiﬁcial wT series were then assigned to the random variable y. Each panel in Fig. 31e−007 0 −4 −2 0 2 4 Fig. 5 Histograms of the artiﬁcial mean values (x) for 200 artiﬁcial time series from a random sampling of the original 15-min time series of the w T products (length: 7200).