By E. E. van der Wall (auth.), Ernst E. Van Der Wall, Thomas H. Marwick, Johan H. C. Reiber (eds.)
In fresh years there were large advances in cardiac imaging innovations masking the full spectrum from echocardiography, nuclear cardiology, magnetic resonance imaging to distinction angiography. With admire to those noninvasive and invasive cardiac imaging modalities, marked technological advancements have allowed the heart specialist to imagine the myocardium in a much more subtle demeanour than traditional imaging used to be able to. Echocardiography has prolonged its area with intravascular ultrasound, cardiovascular nuclear imaging has further positron emission tomography to its line of study, magnetic resonance imaging has been broadened with magnetic resonance angiography and spectroscopy, and at last distinction angiograp hy has widened its scope with very good quantitation courses. For some of these imaging modalities it really is real that the applying of devoted quantitative analytic software program programs allows the assessment of the imaging experiences in a extra exact, trustworthy, and reproducible demeanour. It is going with out announcing that those extensions and achievements have ended in greater diagnostics and in this case in superior sufferer care. rather in sufferers with ischemic middle ailment, significant development has been made to observe coronary artery sickness in an early section of the sickness approach, to stick to the atherosclerotic adjustments within the coronary arteries, to set up the practical and metabolic effects of the luminal obstructions, and to thoroughly examine the result of interventional therapy.
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Extra resources for Advances in Imaging Techniques in Ischemic Heart Disease
T. Pattynama and A. de Roos The PC flow effect also forms the basis for the flow velocity measurements of MR flow mapping. The magnitude of the phase shifts is directly proportional to the spin velocity and can be measured accurately. The PC data can be used to create a phase map which can be translated into a velocity map, which is a spatial representation of the velocities within the imaging plane at the time of data acquisition. Because the blood flow is pulsatile, the velocity map changes over the course of the cardiac cycle.
Following uptake into the cell, FDG is phosphorylated, but then becomes trapped in the cell as, unlike glucose, it is not a favorable substrate for glycolysis, glycogen synthesis, or the pentose phosphate shunt . Thus, FDG uptake reflects the uptake of glucose into the cell rather than its subsequent metabolism. Cardiac myocytes normally utilize fatty acids for energy requirements, but glucose is normally utilized during ischemia or the post-prandial state . Thus, the metabolic milieu of the cell has an important influence on FDG uptake, which may impact on the results of the test in diabetic patients as well as limiting the ability to standardize glucose uptake between individuals.
This allows the three-dimensional (3D) evaluation of the magnitude and direction of the spin velocities, but only at the expense of doubling the acquisition time. Comparison of TOF and PC MR angiography A discussion of the relative advantages of TOF versus PC MR angiography is outside the scope of this chapter and can be found in review articles [2,3]. Some characteristics of the two methods, though, deserve mentioning. Common to both techniques is the need for short repetition times and short echo times.