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Extra resources for A vocabulary and outlines of grammar of the Nitlakapamuk or Thompson tongue : the Indian language spoken between Yale, Lillooet, Cache Creek and Nicola Lake : together with a phonetic Chinook dictionary, adapted for use in the province of British Columbia

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22 I analyze a finite clause and its existential core as having parallel functional organization pertaining to discourse, as shown at the top in Table 3. A clause consists of an anchor, the existential core, and the remainder. Analogously, the core itself has an anchor, a core consisting of an existential verb (V∃), and the remainder. The first example, with a clause-internal topic, is a case where all these elements are distinct. Normally, though, the existential core comes first, so effectively the subject – the core’s anchor – anchors the clause as well.

But they are not independent, since the construal imposed by grammar is an essential aspect of an expression’s meaning.  Ronald W. Langacker Bybee & Hopper 2001), in which grammatical patterns are characterized at different levels of schematicity (hence different levels of generality). Even when global generalizations can be abstracted, they are usually not sufficient by themselves to specify precisely the set of conventionally sanctioned expressions (internal predictiveness). Normally they coexist with arrays of less schematic assemblies – including constructional subschemas, specific instantiating expressions, and even alternative constructions – which determine their actual implementation in conventional usage.

Kreitler, ed. Cognition and Motivation: Forging an Interdisciplinary Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Panther, Klaus-Uwe, and Linda L. Thornburg. 2009. Introduction: On figuration and grammar. -U. Panther, L. L. Thornburg, and A. Barcelona, eds. Metonymy and Metaphor in Grammar [Human Cognitive Processing 25], 1–44. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins. Panther, Klaus-Uwe, and Linda L. Thornburg. Forthcoming. Antonymy in language structure and use. In M. Brdar, M. Žic Fuchs, and I.

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