By Kevin M Roddy
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Additional info for A sketch grammar of Satawalese : the language of Satawal Island, Yap State, Micronesia
3 17 rounded when making the sound. The superscript + indicates the sound is velarized, meaning the back of the tongue reaches toward the velum as the sound is produced. An example of each phoneme appearing in initial, medial, and final positions (if found) follows. I also include minimal pairs6 to demonstrate phonemic contrasts and allophones7. Voiceless sounds are aligned to the left and voiced sounds to the right in the table below. Table 1. Consonant phonemes of Satawalese Bilabial Plosive (Stops) Labio-dental &)) &*+) !
Fricative 1) Alveolar 2) ! ) ! ) ! % ) ! ) ) ! ) 5) ! , lips or tongue), so the air cannot escape through the nose or mouth. /, and ///. All stops in Satawalese are unaspirated8. g. ’ 7 Phonetic variants of a phoneme which share a similar quality to the original sound, but are slightly different due to the phonetic environment or position in the word. 8 Aspiration refers to the strong puff of air that follows voiced and voiceless stops when the sound is released. :] ‘Saturday’ ! $ ‘to hunt, search for’ #%# - velar //9/<6$ ‘laugh’ //A/A$ ‘to tie’ /,92"/$)‘afraid’ (/g/) I have enclosed this sound in parentheses in the phonemic inventory to distinguish it from the other “established” phonemes in the inventory.
The islands on either 23 side of Satawal - Puluwat and Pulusuk (Houk) to the east and Lamotrekese and Woleaian to the west – have both $E$ and $-$)in their phonemic inventories. [l] is an example of a sound that is both lateral and approximant, and it is produced as air escapes around both sides of the tongue. -@)to be “a common phone with marginal phonemic status” in Satawalese, Woleaian, and Lamotrekese. E@, but added “there are many words where n cannot be substituted for l,” citing the Satawalese word for ‘pillow,’ jylyyl (his orthography) as an example.