By Len A Doust
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Additional resources for A manual on drawing the human figure
2. Color the periosteum D brown where it covers the bone. 3. Color the other parts of the long bone. Use red for E and yellow for G . Use very dark colors to outline F and I . COLORING INSTRUCTIONS ✍ On the bottom figure: color the bone corresponding to each fracture classification ( L to S ) and the corresponding term, using the same color. qxd 12/12/2008 11:09 AM Page 25 Aptara Inc. qxd 12/12/2008 11:09 AM Page 26 Aptara Inc. Coloring Exercise 3-3 ➤ Compact Bone Tissue Long Bones • Remember that long bones consist of proximal A and distal B epiphyses and a middle diaphysis C • The diaphysis consists of compact bone surrounding a medullary cavity D • Long bones are covered by the periosteum E Compact Bone Tissue • Compact bone is HARD • Consists of concentric rings of bone matrix F , primarily calcium salts, organized in osteons G • Ringlike structure adds strength • Compact bone is ALIVE • The diagram at the far right shows live bone • Osteocytes H (spiderlike, living cells) maintain bone • Osteocytes live in spaces (lacunae I ) between rings of hard bone tissue • Osteocytes touch each other through small radiating channels (canaliculi J ) • Blood vessels nourish bone • Central canal K , perforating canals L contain blood vessels M and nerves (not shown) • The middle diagram shows dead bone; only lacunae are observed • Remember that the central canal and medullary cavity are completely different!
Qxd 12/17/08 2:31 AM Page 30 Aptara Inc. , knees, hips) due to normal wear and tear • Erosion of articular cartilage, eventually bone • New bone forms at joint margins, narrowing joint and eventually forming bone spurs O • Cartilage atrophies, ligaments calcify • Result: limited movement COLORING INSTRUCTIONS ✍ Color each bone and its name at the same time, using the same color. On the top figure: 1. Color the bones of the knee joint ( E to G ) using related light colors. 2. Use a dark color to outline structure A .
Color these parts on a few vertebrae. COLORING INSTRUCTIONS ✍ On the bottom figures: 1. Color the term describing the abnormal curvature and the corresponding vertebral column the same color ( N to P ). 2. Color the abnormal curve(s) with a darker version of the color. qxd 12/12/2008 11:09 AM Page 35 Aptara Inc. qxd 12/12/2008 11:09 AM Page 36 Aptara Inc. Coloring Exercise 3-8 ➤ The Thorax and Shoulder Girdle ™ FLASHCARDS 5 AND 6 The Thoracic Cage • Sternum A ϩ 12 pairs of ribs (and associated cartilage) • Protects lungs, heart, kidneys, upper abdominal organs • Supports bones of shoulder girdle and upper limbs • Involved in respiration Sternum A • Manubrium A1 joins with the clavicles at the clavicular notch A2 and with the first pair of ribs • Junction between manubrium and body A3 can be felt as a ridge (the sternal angle A4; identifies the second rib) • Body joins the costal cartilage B of ribs two through seven • Xiphoid process A5 attached to some abdominal muscles Ribs • 12 pairs, attached to thoracic vertebrae 1–12 • True ribs C (pairs 1–7) attach directly to sternal body, via costal cartilages • Some false ribs D (pairs 8–10) attach to the cartilage of the rib above • Other false ribs (pairs 11 and 12—the floating ribs E ) do not attach anteriorly • Intercostal space F : the space between ribs The Shoulder Girdle • Attaches upper limb to the axial skeleton • Consists of the clavicle G and scapula H Clavicle (Collarbone) G • Articulates with sternum anteriorly, scapula laterally • Sternoclavicular joint is the only bony connection between the upper limb (arm) and the axial skeleton • S-shaped for increased strength; still site of frequent fractures Scapula (Shoulder Blade) H • Secured to axial skeleton by muscles • Prominent ridge (spine H1) can be palpated • Muscles attach to depressions (supraspinous fossa H2, infraspinous fossa H3) and the coracoid process H4 • Acromion H5 joins with the clavicle • Glenoid cavity H6 forms the shoulder joint with the humerus I 36 COLORING INSTRUCTIONS ✍ Color each bone (or bone feature) and its name at the same time, using the same color.