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More than 40 years in the past it used to be verified that the African continent might be divided into 4 designated language households. examine on African languages has consequently been preoccupied with reconstructing and figuring out similarities throughout those households. This has intended that an curiosity in other forms of linguistic dating, corresponding to even if structural similarities and dissimilarities between African languages are the results of touch among those languages, hasn't ever been the topic of significant learn. This 2007 ebook indicates that such similarities throughout African languages are extra universal than is extensively believed. It presents a huge point of view on Africa as a linguistic region, in addition to an research of particular linguistic areas. that allows you to have a greater figuring out of African languages, their constructions, and their heritage, additional information on those contact-induced relationships is vital to knowing Africa's linguistic geography, and to reconstructing its historical past and prehistory.
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Additional resources for A Linguistic Geography of Africa (Cambridge Approaches to Language Contact)
12 Africa at the beginning of the nineteenth century leaders and their followers and lineage groups at the end of the eighteenth century and in the early nineteenth century. This migration was part of thefinalstages of the drift of the L u o migrations from the headwaters of the Nile, joined by groups displaced from the northern shores of Lake Victoria and from small states like L u u k a as a result of the pressures of the expanding kingdom of Buganda. T h e y sought relatively underpopulated areas away from existing power structures and they lived in dispersed homesteads, not in nucleated villages.
T h e y also promoted industrial manufacture and trade. T h e y improved trade routes and offered protection to traders and merchants. B y far the greatest portion of the traffic on the routes was for local and regional exchange. But the djihad leaders also promoted trans-Saharan trade routes and the pilgrimage route to the Eastern Sudan, the Nile Valley and Mecca. 28 T h e Europeans, of course, were quick to note the results of these internal initiatives and were attracted to the possibility of profiting from them.
While M u h a m m a d 'All succeeded in making his power in Egypt stronger, and thus further weakened the Ottoman empire, his vision and his son's effort to build an Afro-Arab empire in its place did not succeed. ' U t h m a n dan Fodio ( U s m a n dan Fodio) succeeded in making the Sokoto caliphate a sprawling empire, but effective political power was devolved to the amirs. M o r e than any of these, the Mfecane set off" a chain of events that encouraged the formation of a series of compact centralized kingdoms not only in Southern but also in Central and even East Africa.