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By Marion Wallace

Namibia won its independence in 1990 after a long time of fight opposed to South African rule. earlier than its battles with South Africa, the rustic spent years in the grip of German colonialism. during this booklet, the 1st common historical past of Namibia to be released in additional than 20 years, a celebrated historian and a well known archaeologist supply clean viewpoint on those occasions, in addition to a close account of the country's precolonial period.The quantity starts off with an soaking up historical past of Namibia from earliest occasions to the arriving of German colonialism within the 19th century. Drawing on resources in English and German, the authors discover trajectories of migration, construction, and tool within the precolonial interval, adjustments prompted by way of ecu enlargement, and the dynamics of formal colonialism. They relate the complete event of German rule, together with the genocide of 1904-1908, the wars of imperative and southern Namibia, and the destiny of defeated Africans who have been imprisoned in focus camps. ultimate chapters speak about African nationalism, apartheid, and conflict among 1946 and 1990, and the advance of Namibia within the 20 years seeing that independence. a useful advent and source, this quantity reasserts Namibia's the most important position within the background of southern Africa and, with its wealthy perception and broad bibliography, furthers accountable study at the kingdom and the continent.

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Finally, the German administrations of Togo and Cameroon built rail networks in the prosperous coastal regions of their colonies. All of these railroads were designed to link a seaport to a hinterland. They were not designed to link major African centers to each other, but to link African sources of raw materials to European purchasers, and to link European manufacturers to African purchasers. Once the railroads were there, however, they began to play a role in the local economy. In Dahomey, for Economy and society, 1880–1940 31 instance, salt merchants began shipping their wares on the railroad, and cattle merchants used the rail line as a convenient path to march their herds through a marshy area.

The escape from slavery was generally easier for male slaves than for females, as women were often tied by children and by marriage to their adoptive homes. And for many slaves, there was no home to return to. These slaves had a greater tendency to escape to French and Belgian administrative posts and towns. The slave owners too were faced with an adjustment once the colonial era began. As slavery gradually lost the force of law, they sought to transform their control over their slaves in order to maintain it.

In the Kuba kingdom of the Kasai valley in the southern savanna, each king engaged an architect to lay out an entirely new capital town. The capital of Bagirmi, in the heart of what is today Chad, moved periodically with the king. Although towns stood out as centers of power and exchange in precolonial Africa, the population remained overwhelmingly rural. So while the story of transformation in social and economic life must include an emphasis on the rise of new cities and new conditions in cities, most of the transformation of African life has taken place in the countryside.

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