Download A History of English: Volume I: From Proto-Indo-European to by Donald Ringe PDF

By Donald Ringe

This e-book is the 1st due to the fact 1897 to explain the earliest reconstructable levels of the prehistory of English. It outlines the grammar of Proto-Indo-European, considers the adjustments through which one dialect of that prehistoric language built into Proto-Germanic, and offers a close account of the grammar of Proto-Germanic. the 1st quantity in Don Ringe's A Linguistic historical past of English may be of significant curiosity to all students and scholars of comparative Indo-European and Germanic linguistics, the heritage of English, and old linguists. the subsequent quantity will contemplate the improvement of Proto-Germanic into previous English. next volumes will describe the attested historical past of English from the outdated English interval to the current.

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Extra info for A History of English: Volume I: From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English)

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24 Proto-Indo-European accusative. Therefore in the more familiar IE languages, including Germanic, the accusative has the additional function of expressing motion toward. Each noun was arbitrarily assigned to a concord class, called a ‘gender’; there were three genders, conventionally called masculine, feminine, and neuter. Adjectives, determiners, and most quantiWers modifying a noun exhibited gender concord with the noun. In addition, concord of number, case, and gender obtained under coreference.

Therefore in the more familiar IE languages, including Germanic, the accusative has the additional function of expressing motion toward. Each noun was arbitrarily assigned to a concord class, called a ‘gender’; there were three genders, conventionally called masculine, feminine, and neuter. Adjectives, determiners, and most quantiWers modifying a noun exhibited gender concord with the noun. In addition, concord of number, case, and gender obtained under coreference. Thus nominals other than nouns normally had three sets of case-and-number forms, one for each gender.

Once again, the dual endings are not reconstructable because Greek and Indo-Iranian disagree. 4 (ii) ); present and aorist mediopassive participles ended in a suYx *-mh1no´-. Not surprisingly, the perfect participle exhibited a diVerent suYx *-wos- $ *-us-. An inWnitive suYx *-dhyo¯y or *-dhyoey, likewise aYxed to aspect-stems, is reconstructable, but not much is known about its distribution, since it survives only in the Indo-Iranian subfamily and in Umbrian (see Rix 1976b); possibly it was suYxed only to present stems.

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