By Johnny Tjia
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Extra info for A grammar of Mualang : an Ibanic language of western Kalimantan, Indonesia
In these clusters, syncopation occurs relatively independent of speech tempo, while also some of the clusters seem to be considered as genuine consonant clusters by native speakers rather than reduced syllables. Examples of these are mpliaw ‘(tailless) gibbon’, p֙aw ‘proa’. : /pђsta/ ‘feast’, /bђ֙sih/ ‘clean’, /bђ֙kat/ ‘blessing’, /tђ֙bay/ ‘to fly’, /kђ֙ja/ ‘to work’, /ցђ֙ցasi/ ’name of a ghost’. As the examples mpliaw and ֊kra֊an show, even sequences of three consonants occur when a root already contains a sequence nasal—voiceless stop, hence NC1C2V2; another example is /mplawak/ ‘spider’.
E. the postplosion, blocks the nasalization from occurring. It also triggers nasal preplosion, as in the last three examples above. However, there are cases where it is hard to identify postploded nasals. This is especially the case when it is uncertain whether or not the vowel following the nasal consonant is subject to nasal spreading, while the nasal consonant seems to be articulated as plain. That may be the reason why older sources are sometimes at variance with my findings. Dunselman (1955) analyzes ngaw ‘to use, for, with’ and ngay ‘not want’, for example, with a postploded nasal, which is not corroborated by my data.
Pђsta/ ‘feast’, /bђ֙sih/ ‘clean’, /bђ֙kat/ ‘blessing’, /tђ֙bay/ ‘to fly’, /kђ֙ja/ ‘to work’, /ցђ֙ցasi/ ’name of a ghost’. As the examples mpliaw and ֊kra֊an show, even sequences of three consonants occur when a root already contains a sequence nasal—voiceless stop, hence NC1C2V2; another example is /mplawak/ ‘spider’. In such cases the nasal either becomes syllabic or is less manifested. : /cucuk/ ‘suitable, match’, /sђsat/ ‘to get lost’. : /tucuk/, /tђsat/, /daْ’i/ ‘promise’ (< *janji). 4 Stress Mualang shows variation in stress, that is, relative prominence in duration and pitch with concomitant changes in vowel timbre.